Diplomatic relations were established on March 6, 1970 with the Russian Embassy opened in Gaborone on August 25, 1976. Ambassador of the Republic of Botswana to the Russian Federation C.Nteta who presented her credentials on July 2019, is a resident Ambassador in Stockholm, Sweden. Russia-Botswana relations are traditionally friendly. Positions of both countries on main international and regional issues are close or coincide.
The permanent political dialogue is based on the Protocol on political consultations between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of the Republic of Botswana dated on December 17, 2002.
The latest round of political consultations took place in Moscow on May 26, 2017 with Deputy Foreign Minister of Russia, Special Presidential Envoy for Middle East and African countries M. Bogdanov and Deputy Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of International Relations and Cooperation of the Republic of Botswana T. Ramoodimosi participating. On June 6, 2019, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation S. Lavrov and the Minister of international Affairs and Cooperation of the Republic of Botswana U. Dow held negotiations on the sidelines of the XXIII St. Petersburg International Economic Forum.
Within inter-parliament cooperation the exchanges of visits at the level of the Chairman of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation and the Speaker of the National Assembly of the Republic of Botswana are held in 2001 and 2005. In 2015, Speaker G. Kokorwe met with the Chairman of the Council of the Federation of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation V. Matvienko on the sidelines of the I Eurasian Women's Forum in St. Petersburg. On October 14-18, 2017, the Botswana delegation headed by the Botswana Deputy Speaker K. Molatlhegi participated in the 137th Assembly of the Inter-Parliamentary Union in St. Petersburg and met with I. Umakhanov, the Deputy Chairman of the Council of the Federation of Russia. On September 20-21, 2018, P.Venson-Moitoi, the member of parliament and cabinet minister, took part in the II Eurasian Women’s Forum in St. Petersburg and signed the final Declaration.
Trade and economic cooperation between Russia and Botswana is based on the Trade Agreement of 1987 and the Agreement on Economic and Technical Cooperation of 1988. The Convention between the Government of the Republic of Botswana and the Government of the Russian Federation for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with Respect to Taxes on Income is signed on April 8, 2003.
The Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Botswana signed the Agreement on Cultural, Scientific and Educational Cooperation in Gaborone in September 1999. In June 2016, the Memorandum of understanding between the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation and the Ministry of Education and Skills Development of the Republic of Botswana was signed in Moscow. It stipulated the annual allocation of 30 scholarships by the Russian Government for Botswana citizens to educate in Russian universities. The law enforcement cooperation implies the higher education and the short-term courses for Botswana police officers in the educational institutions of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs.
The Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Botswana on Visa-Free Travels on Diplomatic and Service Passports was signed on February 10, 2005. In compliance with the Statutory Instrument No. 88 of the Republic of Botswana dated December 5, 2006, the citizens of the Russian Federation enjoy visa-free entry to Botswana for 90 days.
On June 6, 2019, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation S. Lavrov and the Minister of international Affairs and Cooperation of the Republic of Botswana U. Dow signed the intergovernmental Agreement on the Exemption of the Visa Requirements for the Nationals of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Botswana for 30 days which entered into force on October 8, 2019.