On social-economic development in Crimea
The proclamation of independence of the Republic of Crimea on March 17, 2017 and its reunification with the Russian Federation were conducted on the basis of the direct expression of the will of peninsula’s population at the general referendum after the coup d’état in Ukraine on February 2014. The Russian Federation guarantees to the peoples of Crimea the equal rights and freedoms regardless of language, religion, national and social origins and political convictions in accordance with the Russian international obligations and commitments in this area.
The Russian Federation also provides the events for national, cultural and spiritual renaissance of Crimea’s peoples. Since the reunification there were no significant interethnic or inter-confessional conflicts in the Crimea. The Presidential Decree No. 268 of April 21, 2014 "On Measures to Rehabilitate the Armenian, Bulgarian, Greek, Crimean-Tatar and German Peoples and State Support for their Revival and Development" is the legal framework for the establishment of national cultural autonomies. In 2018 fourteen of them including two Crimean-Tatar ones already exist.
To settle the deported peoples including the Crimean Tatars, 95% of which are in possession of Russian passports, and assist them to set up 10 billion rubles have been allocated. This community is well represented in the authorities of all levels, in accordance with its share in the population (at least 10% of the internal affairs agencies and prosecutor's office staff). State-confessional interaction is developing in an effective way. The construction of the cathedral mosque for 400 thousand people in Simferopol will be finished soon.
As of January 2017, the population of the peninsula is 2.3 million people. In total there are more then 100 nations and nationalities in the Crimea. 85% of Crimeans consider Russian as their native language. In accordance with the Constitution, the state languages of the Republic of Crimea are Russian, Ukrainian and Crimean-Tatar. The principle of cultural adversity is recognized, their equal development and mutual enrichment are ensured.
In the secondary schools of the peninsula the teaching is provided in 3 state languages. In Crimea there is a school, where pupils during the first nine years are taught entirely in Ukrainian, and there are also 7 schools having Ukrainian classes. The Ukrainian language is taught in 58 schools as an obligatory discipline and in 65 as an optional one. The total number of pupils, who study the Ukrainian language is 11 thousand people. There are 15 schools where the language of teaching is Crimean-Tatar with 5.6 thousand pupils studying there. The Ministry of the Education, Science and Youth of the Republic of Crimea is drafting the textbooks in Ukrainian and Crimean-Tatar languages. The choice of language for children is made by parents on a voluntary basis.
Today the Republic of Crimea and the city with federal status Sevastopol are integrated in the Russian economic space. Since 2014 the Federal Target Programme “Social and Economic Development of the Republic of Crimea and the City of Sevastopol until 2020” has been implemented with the budget of $11 bln. The economy is on the upward trend, which has been achieved due to the development of energy, recreational sectors and the growth of housing construction. The implementation of major infrastructure projects is expected to give a fresh impetus to the social economic development.
In the current year, two heating and power grids with a capacity of 470 MW are going to be launched in Simferopol and Sevastopol. A similar facility is being built in the city of Saki (120 MW). 100 km of new pipelines have been built for stable water supply, which allowed to collect a record harvest wheat (1.7 million tons) in 2017. 520 km of roads were repaired for 2015-2016 and another 700 km are scheduled for modernization by 2021. In 2018, the motorway of the Kerch Bridge, the total cost of which is 228 billion rubles, is planned for putting into operation. The launch of railway traffic is scheduled for 2018. By September 2020, the construction of the 250-km federal highway "Tavrida" with a budget of 566 billion rubles will be completed.
Nowadays, the delivery of goods (food, medicines, etc.) is mainly provided by Kerch ferry with passengers transported by air. During the busy periods the international airport of Simferopol receives up to 240 flights per day (according to the results of 2017 it is on the 7th place in Russia with 500 thousand tourists). This year a new terminal will be opened after the reconstruction which costs 6.5 billion rubles, the scheduled flow of passengers will reach 6.5 million people per year.
The situation in the social sphere of the peninsula is improving. For 4 years, the nominal salaries have increased by 60%, pensions - more than 2 times. Moreover, all social security and protection programs guaranteed by the federal laws were extended to the Crimeans.
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